S. Chooklin1, B. Pidhirnyi2, R. Barylyak2
1Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University
Introduction. Local and systemic inflammation, disorders in the hemostatic system are among the key components of acute pancreatitis (AP) pathogenesis already in its early stages, and in future development of thrombohemorrhagic complications. The degree of systemic hemostatic disorders in AP varies from subclinical activation of coagulation, which can only be detected using sensitive markers of activation of coagulation factors, to fulminant disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, characterized by multiple systemic microvascular thrombosis and profuse bleeding from different sites. It has been proven that D-dimers and soluble fibrin-monomeric complexes (SFMK) are valuable markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis activation.
The aim of the study. To study the dynamics of D-dimers, soluble fibrin-monomeric complexes in the blood of patients with acute pancreatitis, depending on the severity of the disease.
Materials and methods. A prospective examination of 206 patients with AP was carried out. According to the criteria of the International Classification, mild pancreatitis was verified in 51 patients, moderate – in 98, severe – in 57. The concentration of SFMK, D-dimers was determined in 66 patients with AP on the first, third, seventh and fourteenth days of conservative treatment. The reference values were estimated in 11 healthy individuals.
Results. The enhansed concentration of SFMK and D-dimers were detected in the blood of all patients under examination. Their content directly correlated with the severity of AP course as determined by the Ranson and BISAP score, the severity of the patient’s condition by the APACHE II score and organ dysfunction by the SOFA score, and the degree of damage to the pancreas by the Balthazar criteria. The concentration of SFMK and D-dimers significantly increased with the occurrence of respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic dysfunction. A reliable direct correlation was determined between the amount of SFMK and the concentration of creatinine and glucose in the blood of patients with AP. The increase in the level of D-dimers significantly directly correlated with the concentration of creatinine in the blood serum. The sensitivity of SFMK determination (cut-of value 137.50 ng/L) for predicting pulmonary dysfunction was 86.20 %, and the specificity was 83.80 %, with positive and negative predictive values of 80.65 and 88.57 % respectively.
Conclusions. The course of acute pancreatitis is accompanied by local or systemic inflammation, changes in the hemostatic system, severity of which correlating with the severity of the disease. Characteristic feature for patients with severe acute pancreatitis is the combination of systemic inflammation with procoagulant changes. The severity of acute pancreatitis, the severity of patient’s condition and organ dysfunction, the severity of pancreatic lesions are associated with an increase of fibrin degradation products. The concentration of soluble fibrin-monomeric complexes can be used to predict pulmonary dysfunction in patients with acute pancreatitis.
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