Lviv clinical bulletin 2023, 3(43)-4(44): 52-57

Arrhythmias in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction induced by various risk factors during the first day after myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention

R. Kovalchuk, U. Bahan

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University

Introduction. Acute coronary syndrome, in particular acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), is often accompanied by complex hemodynamically significant arrhythmias and conduction disorders. Such patients have a worse prognosis compared to patients with sinus rhythm. Arrhythmias in patients with STEMI are facilitated by the presence of comorbidities such as arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and post-COVID-19 syndrome.

The aim of the study. To elucidate the nature of arrhythmias in patients with acute STEMI induced by various risk factors during the first day after myocardial reperfusion by primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Materials and methods. The study involved 50 patients aged 45 to 83 years (average age – 63,4 ± 9,6 years; men – 70,97 %, women – 29,03 %), who were treated during 2021-2023 at the cardiology and reperfusion therapy department of Cardio-vascular center of ʺSaint Panteleimon Hospital in Lvivʺ and the infarction department of ʺLviv Regional Clinical Cardiological Centerʺ. The patients under investigation were subjected to daily electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring for 24 hours after stenting of the infarct-related coronary artery, using a 7-channel ECG recorder Solvaig 06000.7 with computer processing of the recording using the DiaCard2 software. The obtained material was further subjected to software packages Microsoft Excel 2022, Statistica 10.

Results. It was established that among supraventricular rhythm disturbances the most common were premature contractions, the average number of which per patient was significantly higher in the presence of obesity. Similarly high it was in post COVID-19 patients, as well as in those with hypertension. In post-coronavirus infection and in hypertension cases, extrasystoles were often in the form of pairs, triplets, bigemia, and trigemia; paroxysms of supraventricular tachycardia were also recorded in these patients. Among the ventricular arrhythmias also the most frequent were premature cardiac contractions, significantly more oftenly recorded in patients with hypertension and those experienced COVID-19; only in these patients were documented extrasystoles in the form of pairs, triplets, bigeminy, trigeminy, runs of ʺR to Tʺ, which are currently considered as harbingers of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. In the presence of hypertension and post-COVID-19, episodes of unstable ventricular tachycardia were also observed.

Conclusions. In patients with STEMI, both supraventricular and ventricular premature contractions and episodes of supraventricular and unstable ventricular tachycardia are quite common during the first day after primary percutaneous coronary intervention with infarct-related coronary artery stenting, which is evidence of myocardial electrical instability. The nature of rhythm disturbances in the presence of hypertension and post-COVID-19 is prognostically unfavorable and indicates a higher risk of lifethreatening arrhythmias in these patients. Myocardial revascularization should be supplemented with optimal medical treatment in order to prevent the adverse cardiovascular events in post-STEMI patients. Further research should be directed toward elucidation of predictive value of detected arrhythmias with respect to the occurrence of unfavorable cardiovascular events in the early and long-term post-infarction period.


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