Lviv clinical bulletin 2020, 1(29): 45-51

Etiopathogenesis and Histogenesis of Ovarian Tumors

L. Markin, O. Besedin, K. Isayeva, M. Doroshenko-Kravchyk

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University 

Introduction. Nowadays, the incidence of ovarian tumors has increased from 6.0-11.0 % to 19.0-25.0 %, becoming the serious medical, economic and social problem, as they affect the reproductive potential, respectively, demographic situation in the country and future women’s health. Besides this, the majority of them have a tendency to become malignant. Also they are one of the causes of high mortality among the female population. Thus, determination of the main risk factors, knowledge of etiological causes and substantial understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of ovarian tumor will enable to conduct prophylaxis of this disease development and improve the medical aid.

The aim of the study. To review and summarize the published investigations devoted to the problems of etiology and pathogenesis of different ovarian tumors according to their histological structure.

Materials and methods. The content analysis, method of systemic and comparative analysis, bibliosemantic method of studying the actual scientific researches concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of ovarian tumors, differing by the histological structure and the course specificity, were conducted.

The data was searched in scientometric databases: PubMed-NCBI, Medline, Research Gate, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews by such keywords: “etiology”, “pathogenesis”, “hypothesis”, “ovarian benign tumor”, “ovarian cancer”, “risk factor”, “histogenesis”, “genetic mutations”, “World Health Organization”, “FIGO” (fr. – Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d’Obstétrique). Totally, 84 English, Ukrainian and Russian sources were analyzed.

Results. Analysis of modern literature shows that the process of tumor cell transformation has not been fully understood due to their histological features. Nowadays, the numerous endogenous and exogenous risk factors have been identified. And, recently, the traditional theory of the appearance of ovarian tumors has undergone the significant changes. Also, several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the epidemiological factors: the continuous ovulation hypothesis, the hypothesis of gonadotropins excessive secretion, the genetic theory, theory of microenvironment and genetic polymorphism. In recent years, the large number of studies are devoted to the study of the immune system state, the process of apoptosis, morphological and molecular cytogenetics.

Conclusions. Thus, according to epidemiological investigations, neoplasms of the ovaries can be regarded as systemic diseases, which occurs on a molecular genetic level with involvement of various endogenous and exogenous factors. However, despite the significant advancements in fundamental science, the causes of tumor appearance and, respectively, the issue of early diagnosis and prophylaxis of the most common neoplasms of the ovaries need further investigations.


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